of all types - business, governmental, service, and charitable - are with daily
problem-solving and decision-making tasks. Whether at the policy-making executive
level or at the operational management level, decision makers and problem solvers
require a steady supply of information on which they can rely. This information may
be supplied orally or in written form. The term used to describe the body of
information is a report. The process of
developing the information, preparing it for presentation, and presenting it is reporting.
Many kinds of documents are called reports.
In some organizations, a report is a long document or a document that contains
numerical data. In others, one
and two-page memos are called reports.
A short report to a client may use letter format.
Formal reports contain formal elements such as a title
page, a transmittal, a table of contents, and a list of illustrations.
Informal reports may be computer
printouts of production or sales figures; they may be handwritten answers to
questions on a printed form; they may use letter or memo format. But all reports,
whatever their length or degree of formality, provide the information that people in
organizations need to make plans and solve problems.
can be called
information reports if they collect data for the reader,
analytical reports if they interpret data
but do not recommend action, and
recommendation reports if they recommend
action or a solution.
following report are usually information reports:
list sales figures for the week or month.
document a plant’s productivity and profits for the
following reports are usually analytical reports:
record an organization’s accomplishments during the
past year and provide financial data.
document the facts revealed during an audit and offer an
pay-back reports calculate the point at
which a new capital
investment will pay for itself.
following reports can be information, analytical, or recommendation reports:
list the nature and causes of accidents in a factory or
office and can recommend changes to make conditions safer.
summarize an applicant’s income and other credit
obligations and evaluate his or her collateral and creditworthiness.
document a committee’s work for the quarter or the
and interim reports
record the work done so far
and the work
remaining on a project.
share what the author learned at a conference or during
a visit to a customer or supplier.
document research that is not economically or
technically feasible for new products under current conditions.
following reports are recommendation reports:
identify the strengths and weaknesses of a potential
recruit or an opposing team and recommend whether to bid for the recruit or
recommend strategies for beating the opponent.
evaluate two or more alternatives and recommend which
the organization should choose.
justify the need for a purchase, an investment, a new
personnel line, or a change in procedure.
identify the causes of an organizational problem and
recommend a solution.
writing any report, there are five basic steps:
Define the problem.
Gather the necessary data and information.
Interpret the data.
Organize the information.
Write the report.
STUDENT PROGRESS REPORT
Progress on Cad/CAM Software Feasibility Study for the Architecture Firm,
Patrick and Associates, Inc.
have obtained most of the information necessary to recommend whether CADAM or CATIA
is better for Patrick and Associates, Inc. (P&A). I am currently analyzing and
organizing this information and am on schedule.
learn how computer literate P&A employees are, I interviewed a judgment sample
of five employees. My interview with Bruce Ratekin, the director of P&A’s
Computer-Aided Design (CAD) Department on November 3 enabled
me to determine the architectural drafting needs of the firm. Mr. Ratekin
also gave me a basic drawing of a building showing both two-and three-dimensional
views so that I could replicate the drawing with both software packages.
obtained tutorials for both packages to use as a reference while making the drawings.
First I drew the building using CADAM the package designed primarily for two-dimensional
architectural drawings. I encountered problems with the isometric drawing
because there was a mistake in the manual I was using; I fixed the problem by
tying alternatives and finally getting heel from another CADAM user. Next, I used
CATIA, the package whose strength is three-dimensional drawings, to construct the
drawing. I am in the process of comparing the two packages based on these criteria:
quality of drawing, ease of data entry (lines, points, surfaces, etc.) for computer
experts and novices, and ease of making changes in the completed drawings. Based on
my experience with the packages, I have analyzed the training people with and
without experience in CAD
would need to learn to each of these packages.
to Be Completed
the drawings has shown that neither of the packages can do everything that P&A
needs. Therefore, I want to investigate the feasibility of P&A’s buying both
soon as he comes back from an unexpected illness that has kept him out of the office,
I will meet with Tom Merrick, the CAD systems programmer for The Ohio State
University, to learn about software expansion flexibility for both packages as well
as the costs for initial purchase, installation, maintenance, and software updates.
After this meeting, I will be ready to begin the first draft of my report.
I am able to meet my deadline will depend on when I am able to meet with Mr. Merrick.
Right now, I am on schedule and plan to submit my report by the December 1 deadline.
submit a report
документ; лист або меморандум, який
пояснює причину надсилання
про термін, за який капітал
про кредитові операції
про виконуваність (придатність,
звіт на розгляд
the police-making executive level
політики на виконавчому рівні
the operational management level
new capital investment will pay for itself
am on schedule
з графіком, відповідно до плану
expansion flexibility for both packages
гнучкості програмного забезпечення для
обох комплексних поставок
What is report and reporting?
Do you know the elements of the formal reports? Name them.
What reports can be called informational, analytical and recommendation ones?
What analytical reports do you know?
What are the basic steps in writing any report?
at the following
ways of expressing contrast:
Turnover increased. However,
turnover increased, profitability
Profitability fell (even)
though turnover increased.
It would be difficult to ventilate site B, while/whereas the exterior position of site A would improve ventilation.
is used for general contrasts where the ideas are not
equivalent. Although is used when there is
a contrast that surprises us. Even though
is like although but
are used where there is a contrast between equivalent
although, even though, while or
however to contrast the following:
There are only six recruiters.
Site B would be easy to build on.
Salaries have been fixed for two years.
The recruitment agency concentrated on the UK.
There are ten managers.
do most of the work.
A would require new foundations.
will be revised if business improves.
competitors turned to foreign markets.
the Managing Director has decision-making power.
Working conditions are above average.
The recruitment Managers received a basic salary of
Prospective clients were offered discounted rates
for the first year of business.
There are ten managers.
is no rest room.
benefited from high rates of commission.
of these new clients continued to pay less after the first contract year.
are only seven non-management staff.
Site A will be easy to ventilate.
B will be exposed to fumes from the shop floor.
through this report and then note down possible sources of information which the
Credit and Marketing Section Head referred to before writing
Credit and Marketing Section Head
(Sales and Profitability)
of Acme Trading Company (ATC)
increased its sales from $2 million on 1994 to 4 million in 1995. This
increase was partially the result of the growing popularity of its Hong Kong
partially because of the opening of its new Kuala Lumpur branch. This
latter development offsets some of the risk of
loss of business associated with the expected increasing
instability in the Hong Kong situation.
sales increased by 100%, net profit increased from
100,000 in 1994 to
150,000 in 1995. Thus the company has
been consistently profitable, although profit margins have declined
over the period. This decline has been caused by the entry of additional
competition from Aberdeen Holdings Ltd. and rising import prices.
above operational performance is highly creditable in view of the economic
climate during the period under review. It is expected that the economy will
revive during the next year, and strong results from Acme are anticipated.
the following summary of a report on environmental conditions at work. Break it down
into the following parts: (a) Terms of reference, (b) Findings, (
) Conclusions, (d) Recommendations.
brief, the report sets out to list present conditions on the shop floor. It draws
attention to such features as lighting, dirt, ventilation, washing and sanitary
conditions. Particular emphasis is placed on the lack of rest facilities for
employees. It concludes that, although working conditions are generally above
average, the company should consider building a separate rest room for employees.
the following extracts from reports with
the styles listed on the right.
I think we should go ahead and invest in this
If we don’t, we’ll be missing a golden
Investment in this project is imperative. Failure to
invest would mean a missed opportunity.
No time should be wasted in advertising the post.
Any delay will certainly result in less efficiency.
We should consider advertising the post. If we
don’t, it could lead to a reduction in efficiency.
impersonal, formal and very sure
personal and unsure
impersonal and very sure
personal and informal
consider which of the following features are present in the above extracts:
through the following conversation.
Hello, Bader, I haven’t seen you for a while.
That’s not surprising. I’ve been out of the country for a
Really? Where were you?
I spent six months at Louisiana State University.
Oh, that’s interesting. How did that come about? I suppose
some time off and went as a private student.
No, no, I was sponsored by the company. It was part of the
Personnel Development Scheme.
And how was it?
Really good - very worthwhile and informative.
I’d certainly recommend the company to keep on sending
the course. Alternatively, they could perhaps approach the
local university with a view to them setting up a similar program.
What was the course exactly?
Well, the official title was ‘Marketing Petroleum
Products’ and it dealt
with things like Marine Sales, Sales Promotion and
Computers in Marketing. I suppose the standard of lecturing
have been better but, on the other hand, we had some goods
discussions and practical work. We made a couple of visits to
Marketing Divisions of other companies and they were
valuable. I got a lot of good ideas, and I feel as if I’m
really up-to date
But it wasn’t all work was it? What did you do in your free
Well, we had plenty of homework and private study to do, I
did manage to fit in some sightseeing. I had a good look at baton rouge,
thought that New Orleans was the most interesting city I
And what about crime in America? Is it as bad as they say?
Look, Maurice, I’d like to stand here chatting to you, but
wants a memo on his desk with
my comments about the course by
yesterday morning. I really must dash. See you around!
Now plan Bader’s report for him. The topics to be covered are given below to
assist you. What details should you select for inclusion in the report, given that
it is Bader’s boss who wants his comments on the course?
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