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1. George A. Steiner and John . Miner, Management Policy and Strategy (New York: Macmillan, 1977), p. 158.

2. Ibid, p. 158.

3. 1970 . 80% 16,5% 1920 . S. W. Ginzberg, Changing American Economy and Labor Force, in The Worker and the Job, ed. Rosow (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1974).

4. Anthony P. Raia, Managing by Objectives (Glenview, Ill- Scott, Foresman, 1974), p. 11.

5. Peter F. Drucker, The Practice of Management (New York; Harper & Row, 1954).

6. George S. Odiorne, Management by Objectives (New York: Pitman, 1965).

7. Raia, op. cit.

8. H. H. Meyer, E. Kay, and J. P. P. French, Split Roles in Performance Appraisal, Harvard Business Review, vol. 43 (1965), pp. 123-129.

9. Anthony P. Raia, Management by Objective in Theory and Practice, Southern Journal of Business, 1968, pp. 11-20.

10. Stephen J. Carroll, Jr., and Henry L. Tosi, Jr., Management by Objectives (New York: Macmillan, 1973), p. 31

11. Drucker, op. at., pp. 128-129.

12. Ibid.

13. Raia, Managing by Objectives, p. 17

14. Ibid., pp. 68-69.

15. Edward A. Locke, Toward a Theory of Task Motivation and Incentives, Organizational Behavior and Human Performance, vol. 3 (1968), pp. 157-189; Edward A. Locke, Performance Goals as Determinants of Level of Performance in Boredom, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 51 (1967), pp. 120-130; J. F. Bryan and E. A. Locke, Goal Setting as a Means of Increasing Motivation, Journal of Applied. Psychology, vol. 51 (1967), pp. 274-277.

16. E. E. Smith and S. S. Knight, Effects of Feedback on Insight and Problem Solving Efficiency in Training Groups, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 43 (1959), pp. 209-211; J. A. White, J. Antoninetti, and S. R. Wallace, The Effect of Home Office Contact on Sales Performance, Personnel Psychology, vol. 7 (1954), pp. 381-384; L. Miller, The Use of Knowledge of Results in Improving the Perfonnancc of Hourly Operators, General Electric Company Behavioral Research Survey, 1965; P. S. Hundal, Knowledge of Performance as an Incentive in Repetitive Industrial Work, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 53 (1969), pp. 224-226.

17. . , , , .

18. Raia, Managing by Objectives, pp. 149-151.

19. Walker Kiechel III, Corporate Strategists Under Fire, Fortune, December 27,1982, p. 34.

20. Adapted from Business Week, May 9,1977, pp. 34-35.

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