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1. Marvin E. Shaw, Group Dynamics: The Psychology of Small Group Behavior (New York; McGraw-Hill, 1971), p.107.

2. M. A. Verespet, Mission Extraordinary? Call for a Task Force, Industry Week, October 1981, pp. 6-72.

3. W.E. Burrows, Cockpit Encounters, Psychology Today, vol. 16, no. 11 (November 1982), p. 43.

4. Elton Mayo, The Human Problems of an Industrial Civilization (New York: Macmillan, 1933), chaps. 3-5.

5. Ibid., p. 74.

6. F. J. Roethlisberger and William J. Dickson, Management and the Worker (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press, 1949), p. 419.

7. Milton L. Blum and James C. Naylor, Industrial Psychology (New York: Harper & Row, 1968), p. 313.

8. William G. Scott and T. R. Mitchell, Organization Theory: A Structural and Behavioral Analysis (Homewood, III.: Irwin, 1972), p. 28.

9. Alex Carey, The Hawthorne Studies; A Radical Criticism, American Sociological Review, June 1967, pp. 403-414.

10. Leonard S. Sayles and George Strauss, Human Behavior in Organizations (Englewood Cliffs, N. J.: Prentice-Hall, 1966), p. 89.

11. Elton Mayo, Irrationality and Revery, Journal of Personnel Research, March 1923.

12. David L. Ford, Jr., Facets of Work Support and Employee Work Outcomes: An Exploratory Analysis, Journal of Management, vol. 11 (Fall-Winter 1985), pp. 5-20; John P. Wanous, Arnon E. Reichers, and S. P. Mallik, Organizational Socialization and Group Development: Toward an Integrative Perspective, Academy of Management Review, vol.9 (October 1984), pp. 670-683; Paul S. Goodman, Designing Effective Work Groups (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1986), pp. 192-193.

13. D. M. Kipnis, Interaction Between Members of Bomber Crews as a Determinant of Sociometric Choice, Human Relations, vol. 10 (1957), pp. 263-270.

14. Clayton P. Alderf and Ken K, Smith, Studying Intergroup Relations Embedded in Organizations, Administrative Science Quarterly, vol. 27 (March 1982), pp. 35-65.

15. Lawreace S. Wrishtsman, Social Psychohgy in the Seventies (Monterey, Calif.: Brooks/Cole, 1972), pp. 418-419.

16. William Scott, Organization Theory: An Overview and Appraisal, Academy of Management Journal, vol. 4 (1961), pp. 7-26.

17. Kenneth D. Benne and Paul Sheats, Functional Roles of Group Members, Journal of Social Issues, vol. 4 (1948), pp. 41-49.

18. George . Homans, The Human Group (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1950).

19. Scott, op. cit; Keith Davis, Human Behavior at Work (New Yoric MrGraw-Hill, 1977).

20. Davis, op.dt, p. 273.

21. R.C. Davis, Fundamentals of Top Management (New York: Harper & Row, 1951); Keith Davis, Human Relations in Business (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1957).

22. R. Tillman, Problems in Review: Committees on Trial, Harvard Business Review, vol. 38 (1960), pp. 6-S,

23. G.E. Manners, Jr., Another Look at Group Size, Group Problem Solving, and Member Consensus, Acadmy of Management Journal, vol. 18, no. 4 (1975), pp. 715-724; EJ. Thomas and OF. Fink, Effects of Group Size, Psychological Bulletin, vol. 60 (1963), pp. 371-384.

24. R. Hackman and N. Vidmar, Effects of Size and Task Type on Group Performance and Member Reactions, Sociometry, vol 33 (1970), pp. 37-54; P.E. Slater, Contrasting Correlate of Group Size, Sociametry, vol. 21 (1958), pp. 129-139.

25. L.R. Hoffman, Homogeneity of Member Peraonality and Its Effect on Group Problem Solving, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 58 (1959), pp. 27.32; L.R. Hoffman and N.R. Maier, Quality and Acceptance of Problem Solutions by Members of Homogeneous and Heterogeneous Groups, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 62 (1961), pp. 401-407; E.E. Chiselli and T.M. Lodahl, Patterns of Managerial Traits and Group Effectiveness, Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, vol. 57 (1958), pp. 61-66.

26. John . Miner, The Management Process (New York- Macmillan, 1973), pp. 194-195.

27. Mark Alexander, Organizational Norms, The 1977 Handbook for Group Facilitators (La Jolla, Calif.: University Associate, 1977), p. 123.

28. Andre P.C De La Pone, Group Norms: Key to Building a Winning team. Personnel, September-October 1974, pp. 60-67.

29. Ibid; K.N. Werieyand GA Yuki, Organizational Behavior and Personnel Psychology (Homewood, ,: Irwin, 1977).

30. Irving Janis, Group Think (Reading, Mass.: Addison-Wesley, 1972).

31. P.A. Collaros and L.R. Anderson, Effect of Perceived Expertness upon Creativity of Members of Brainslonning Groups, Journal of Applied Psychology, vol. 53 (1969), pp. 159-163; E.P. Torrance, Some Consequences of Power Differences on Decision Making in Permanent and Temporary Three-Man Groups, in Small Groups: Studies in Social Interaction, ed. A.P. Hare, E.F. Borgatta, and R.F. Bells (New York: Knopf, 1955), pp. 482-491.

32. Richard . Pascale and Anthony G. Athos, The Art of Japanese Management (New York Warner Books, 1981), pp. 198-199.

33. Leland P. Bradford, Making Meetings Work (La Jolla, Calif.: University Associates, 1976).

34. Rose Ragsdale, Bank America Alters Its Lending Practice, San Francisco Examiner, December 7,1986, pp. Dl.4.

35. Cyril O'Donnell, Group Rules for Using Committees, Management Review, vol. 50, no. 10 (October 1961), pp. 63-67.

36. . Northcote Parkinson, Paridnson's Law and Other Studies in Administration (Boston: IIougtiton-Mifflin, 1957).


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