TEA 2.3. epaa pao eoao 볿 , , , . (, 55:6)

TEA 2.3. epaa pao eoao 볿

1. Poo eoax oc 볿. ope aocacocx epa.
2. Hopace aoa oo cyc epa ycp 볿 X X c. Peop epxa . Bea Xap ooce 1215 p.
3. ope caoo-pecao oapx. epa ycp.
4. Be ocooc acoo acoy. cycoy a a epa ycp.
5. Xapaep ocooc epe paa. Cyo peee.

Pouo eoaux ocu A볿. ope aocacocux epa
pac ocpo y acee ea-pa, yoax epcoo ay. cepe c. pa ya aooaa pa. poe pce ooapa e ao ooo cy o cop pa. oa pyo oo c., a pa aaa epac eea a, cac, . opco opo cee acee yo acoo e, a acoo c a ax ocpoa. Oe, aoo e ac ce acee, a ocec cyo aco.
Tpaa opoa ce acee cpa oce opoco a.
V c. o ea epa: Ke opoco a eoy cxo A볿, p opoca cac Cyccec a , eccec a axo, Eccec a cxo; p opoca a Cxa A Hopyepe a o a Mepc a axo. oa ec y caoc opoca. c o epeya a ca䳿 paoacooo cycca epea poooo ay. Kopo cya e o, oc epaoc. Hacee o oa, o aaya apy pa. B popa ce (ep) a oy p, a ya y xoy coy opcya. aopooc epeaa, aoa.
Kep a co caopya, o oc po, opya ooe. Bo pac co pya a a o, ocee.
py oo V c. aca opoo acee e c epa pa co oy yypy.
o aoo acy occ ep, a e ee a a oo paa a a aaex e e, , c a x e, a opo.
Ba a oa ca pao, poa cee y paco, a ao aopya. Pa yc a cooy.
Hap V c. opo ecceca aoc oᒺa ay acy A볿, aoa Ke, Cyccec a Eccec. Ha oay X c. epaa a.
p opo caa peypo aca paa a yeaeo (op ypx). ӳeaeo y opao epao a. e oo o opo e a paa pa ao, a ao ca y- a epa axo. B ypa poca po opocx o. oepex opx eepe yo aeo epa, x paa opo. ep, o ooa paca, pa oa, pa, a opoc ao pac, ca cyoy acpao-oecy ay. a p pacax pac op ax oc, poa cyo cpa, opaa oopo pacax aa a.
po V X c. ac opo eoopaoo aaac oᒺa ac opoca y epay, ae Eap Hax (958 975 p.), pac a epy, y ocyoo op opocy ay a c A.
Kopoca aa aaaa eepy py axoe e y x o x e. Ooaco epaa epeaa e ee cyoy, a o y ay a cea. Kopoc oaya ee cea aya ce oo pooce. aya peypoo xapaepy epa ooc x ce.
po X X c. A볿 ocaoo epeaa eoa oc. B o ao paa pa䳔 opo Aeaa (X c.), axoo o, o oa a a aa opa. , op oa a oey e, axoc oo axco.
Kopo yo ao epxo aco e, a ee epae ao eocepeo , ao epe x epa.

Ha y op, o cac a oea ac axo po, coy cyy a ya e eocepe aca, ae , xo y epae x aca. Kopoc a aoc oc oo, o cap a pe eoax cy oaac e y cy eoa, a y opoc cy.
1017 p. ac opo Ky (1017 1035 p.) aoo yc A볺 ca opoe. aeo o, y a cy oy ceo a a o o ao opo Eapa. B poooc pc acoo acoo ao. ao Ky y epaopo, oc y opoe pa, , Hope㳿.
Ba aap-aa, a poooc co opoe Eyapa Coa (1042 1066 p.). poe, opa c oro cep opo apo c oa oooe e y aay c epoa Bea Hopacoo. A oy oc ao aap, oo pay pay.

Hopace aoa ma oo u a u epau ycmp A볿 X X cm. Peopu . Beua Xapm oocme 1215 p.
axo A, Be Hopac ocya oo ceo a. Cepe ex aca eep e yo ooo aocaca. aca ocoax ee (oa cy a, ae c c a e) ya opoc oe. Mca y oooe ea opo.
Be y opooa y Beccepcoy aac. aa oy py acee, o oepya opx ao yapa, e ao xo a aa. opaya acco, opac apo a x coa, pa e poo ox po. 1069 po yoc apoe oca po aap. ϳc oo Be ca poa aocac aoo. apo epae e, ococo oa a oy pcy a pc. yo oo poooeo, o apo A볿 oepa e Bea. o ae y , Hopa䳿: pca a pc; cya ooe poo copoa a p, ae eax pa; a o y opocy yp pcyoc a pa cy; aa acoo ooo y pa oce pap capoo ca oapxa a a a oo capo o, a ao yy opo ooy.
apo pa pao caoco epeaa co apo y cay. Caoe oepya e e opo, oc a oyc o ca oco a pe.
1088 po Be aoo oooc cee epxo aco e epa. oo a o oepya oo ee a y oo. c eeac eep y eocepe (oo) ao ep epae opo y oa oya a oo opc e ooc.
Oc eo aa ca opo o a coy cyy, o Be p pa eoaa.
1086 po oca oy, o c e pcy oy a pc, eaeo oo, y x cayc: e, pc . T, xo pca, o y p opo po cx e, y oy po cox eocepex ceop. Oe, opoa caoa p o acaa cox aca.
Be e cacya op coe pac cyox cpa. B ep ao aocacoc op e ooe x epae, o a oa opo. Moapx pa caoco. oo opocx ya p oy y aep aea. a poca epa, y pecaa a opo y pacax.
epa oepaa aao ee, yo aao pao a c epa cy. pee糿 a a epxoeco y xe. Be oc cac acay pcy oyoy a pop V. ϳa opo e o e c opc a a oo ya. opocy cap yo epeao py apxcoa eepepcoo. pa caoac ca oapx.
epe 20 po c aoa 1086 po A볿 y poee epec acee, e, xyo, ap pa.
e epec oepa ay K Cpaoo cyy. Haa oy, o oo e oa, e o e Cpaoo cyy.
epec a : oepa a, eox opy oaooo oay, opya opo po pop pooe aac, ee py oo aca.
e oye a oy apy coao cpyyp A볿 c po oy eoaa cycca.
e ac y pa poao o 1,5 . oo. e 12% ce y coea, oo , o epeya cyoo pc op; 70 % acee cao eoao ae epae: a, opap, oep oce. Ba epeya cc o, a pea . epc ao ee poapo pa-cep.
Ta o, Hopace aoa ao ae cop A볿, oy o oo cpo ocaooy aepe poecy eoaa; oco opocy ay apo oy c epa; cpo oce A볿 oeo.
X c. pooyc oce opoco a. ϳpy opo aaa c epc acee, aae, oe o-coy, ype oo a.
oo a pooyac e oo. Ho apo, yp co caoe eex ac, oa cxc o caococ. ep apoc cy po opoco a yc a pa epxa (1100 1135 p.), y ye a apoa xap ooce, a o oao ocyx ac eoa epa. oy opoco a y poe cepo ocy, o x y ocy oc co epa. o xap, ep apoa apayac pe. ooc pap oeyac coao coo cyo. Kopo o axa cee acee acca opacx pa co.
a ac epxa peypo (p a p) ca Bey pay, a aca cc yxo op. Ae ya pa e aa opo oooo c. oo cyo aco a opo pya y Ma yp, o cay o xo oo p.
Hopace aoa coo e yo a cee ypa. Ha o aoo pyoo opyo eca, pae, co pooc, o opoyac capoc; a o co oo oce, o epa, opoyac epy. c o a ooae oo pa poacoo opy.
ϳc cep 1135 p. A볿 aca pa epo pax yco. a opo ac y pa yo yoao c ype. Bay epa axo apo.
Peopu epxa
epx (1154 1189 p.) y pyr oo X c. o pyy opoy apoa. B ca pa aa pyya cao yoa a. aao xo apo y oae oo caoo pacex yx pa. o oca aa a cee ypa, epx c c ep, o aea o apcopa, ca paa a ocay ococo ax oy oc eax po. poee oo coa cyoa peop cp e opoco a A볿.

Cyoa peopa
Cyoa peopa caac ocyoo epe ocoe a ac: Beoo, Kapeocoo (1166 p.) Hopeocoo (1176 p.). pao aa pocya oca cpa a yac pcx eep aaaoc yc a opoca, a e ope ocoa opopa, e yo pae. o X c. opa poecy caa aa cyax. o Beoo acy aaea copoa aa pao epeec c oo oco oo oo (poa) ceoo cyy y opocy yp, ca a e oy cyy.
Kapeoc ac c a pae pao poec. Pocya cpa po po, y, p a xx epexoya opya pc. Oco, a x aya pc, a apey a o cyy paca. Po oyaa oya c o co (12 o.) ooy ce (4 o.). Bo pco aa epo cy opx oc (oex po, y). ϳop poxo opa. Mao oo oca, oo caoo cpaya. ϳopaoo ca a a cpx oo peya opa볿.
Kapeoc ac y cy po璿x opocx cy. Kpaa c caa aaoepao.
peya poeeo epxo peop ocac aa opo. epa o oaoe epeo oxo, oc pae paocy opocx cyax yo a. pc paa apo coo oeyac. 
Bcoa peopa
a 40-ey coy cyy eoa cea oao o , o paac a ypa ca aa. 1181 p., y a ac po , oya ycx x e a opo, e oao xoy ocay, a aao opo c ooe. 
Beua Xapm oocme
Ac opo oa eee (1167 1216 p.) ce ea . Haaac oy o a o oxo, oa aa eop oaa, , , opo pap, a ex eoa. pa yopc po aopoc co, oa pya yac oo epecyaa co ac . o pap, opo poep ara apa ca oapxa, o apo oac oepe o eoao oapx.
ijac po aee pe oaa a cee acao a a oy ay pop ca apo cpo opoy, op A볿 oa y po opo. x pa pap . loa ep 1215 poy ca Bey Xap ooce, a a opo ya oooo cc a yxo epa. aa paoa aa ocyo cop A볿 o coox pac o ocox ao Beopa .
Xap peca e epec copo-pao oye. Boa opaa opoy coax py A볿 a oay X c. Xap opy p ax px p cyoo-acpao cce aco eoao epa. o ec Beo Xap apaxoy 63 ca, poe e eo cce. c ca a p py:
1. Ca, o cocyc aepax epec px coax py (c. 1, 2, 9, 13, 15, 18).
2. Ca, o peopy epa exa aco epa ( c. 12, 14, 61 ).
3. Ca, o cao p oc cyoo-acpaoo aapay (c. 17, 20, 21, 39, 40).
Bea Xap ooce ya epea opoe epxo 1225 p. ocaoo Eyapo 1297 po. Pao , c Beo Xap e X c. ac cy a. ep a ce, ya ea ca 61, a caa opo a apoco oapx.

63 cae Xap, o peya oc acoo oapxa oo a, 30 paa epec apo, 7 papca poepco epx, 3 opo.
c. 1 aaaoc, o aca epa a oc oo䳺 co paa. ceopo aac aa pc.
c Xap apayaa x a ooc. Cya pey a cy y oo cao oepoo apoa ao paa o cyaac. Heoo caoe c ca pey a. epee apo o eoaa aopooc xo a ypye e o opo.
o Xap o po oooy opo cya e a oo Pa opoca. opo pa poe a y opo ooy, a ao a ao oce papco epopooo ca, opye capo o oapxa y a, pae, ae cya aa y opo.
ϳa opoca ca pao a pa oepac y o ee o cy o o䳔. A oeya pao ceopa pa y acaa po, e eep po e ep a aao opo.
c. 39 aaaoc, o oa a a e ye aapeoaa yea ao oaea oo eoea y- () , o opo e cy po e ae, oo o poy px (ep) o aoo. Oe, ca poooyaa apa ococoo aooo axcy opocoo ca e apo, a ycx x ax. e aooc cyaac c. 40: ͳoy e yeo poaa paa cpaeoc, oy e yeo o x ao coa . 
a oe p Xap oaa, , epeca apo. oa c, o, o opy cay Xap, oc oepya ooc apo, o o pao oo c e볔 oy pyc oo ca cocoa oya p oa. Baaac e ococa eoopac opo, oo py e.
opo a oepa Xap opo y pay 25 apo. ϳe e yopc apae A볿.
pay c ae cy loa oc Xap. acy epo Xap ya ae aya, aepeo ypyao peo paa apaeap ocac a e ea ace. Boa caa p coo y opo po acoy.
Cay 18 apo, o pyc opo ca Xap, ppaa aay op.

ope cmaoo-pecmauo oapx. au ycmp
Co po loaa eeeoo oᒺya coa py a cyepe epeca, o eaapo poac.
epx , o ca a peco, aa cee a Beo Xap ooce. oce oaooo y ac oo pa yoo 1258 po o cy eoax aa. Bo aa ca aao pa ycx apo epeyo , ao y-oy oa oy opo.
Paa, o caa aac apaeo, paac y 1258 po Ocop. apae popo, a , Ocopc po糿, epeaaoc cope p oapxo oco Pa a, ooo o yo aa - opa opo oo epa epao. pe aax cpa pea yo p a p ca apae. o oo cay xo 27 oo (15 ocx e Pa 12 oo, x opa apo). B ocao oco (aep, e cap, cap opoca, ep) paac cpoo a o p ec oac epe opoo pao a.
Oe, Ocopc po糿 epeaa c ooy a pa eoa . Ae e e oao epeca pap, opo poep, op ao xo pa yac y epaoy ep a cox peca y apae. aa x x pee糿. M coa oy cac pop.
copcac opo. Bpa py oe, oa y po yx aca, ooax Coo e Moopo. Coay epeay a apo, ae o x co cao aaa opao. aaac apyc po pap opo, Co e Moop y 1265 p. epe apoc x o apaey. Heapo ap apo ya poa, a x aao ay. Oa aco oyoo cecoo oca, o caaxyo pa, opo y ye ppc aaa.
1272 p. opo Eyap ca Beccepc apae apoc y peca pac opo. Tpe ca cy caoca oa ca. Boco e poca c poo op cp poecy opya caoo-pecao oapx.
1352 po apae poc a epx caoy aay op (ep) aay o. aa ep aca eocepe epae opo. XV c. y epx aa ca aa opoc ae po apya yy epoa, apa, paa, oa ao apoa.
opo yac y opax o aa o y pacax y aooao ape y 1430 p. o oc pao oocy a yc eeac,o eep oo oy e oco, oco ea y pac oo poo oxoo e e 40 .
ace ope pao yo caoee 1445 p. Cea cay, o pecaa paca o y e a oa oco pap, a ao oc, a pao a ee papc ca.
apae caoya ao x ee oa, pa yac y ep epao (epe acocya e) aooa oc. epee ooae e caoo-peca opa ca e pay. 1297 p. oy pao opo a epa aca. Haa ( 1340 p.) p, a o ep oa oa yo cya a oo ooe. oo aa y cpa ooaya caa o aea aa o.
Moapx oe y ya epe aao o po pae cy.
ocyoo apae oc paa pa yac aooa oc. 1322 p. yo caoeo, o e oo o o e oe y ecee cay. Pao , paoc, o opo aepya ao y apoooa apae pea, a c aepe cec apaey, oepa epoy cyc, yya , oo apa cayy. y y 1414 p. yo peo, o c poycy apaey cay e oa oc ox . ac pa epxa V (1422 1471 p.) apae oaa oapxy e poxa (e) po a ao, a aoopoe (), oapx p ao x.
cop apaey o aco ypyao peo c po e, o y e ycaoo, a caoyaa oa, a aaac p cao opoco acpa, ec p oaoc epe ypy.
Taa oapx oco apaey aeo oca aac. Bo o a co aaa po eya opca ypya糿, o ya ocax p y opo po ep.
apae a a oy, y poo o opo, opcyc pao ey. Pocy x ocao o, aaa o epeopaac a oyae p. p oy opo e oya acyeoo.
Heaa a cy oee, oapx epa yc ooy a. e cocyaoc a ac. Kopoa e o apaey oa aa ca ax oa: ox poe, a볿, cyao poex y opocoy oe c, eoao ooo, a aeaa opo ceopy.

Moapx a pao aaa eo a aoopoe. Kopo cpo oa e poo aoy, y - oo 䳿 y-y ocoy. Kopoc opoac poaa a ay cay py cy, o apaec ao. Te, e a cay, peyaoc aa, oooco aa oapx.
Opaa ceoo ypa ya o opoco pepoao. ac pa Eyapa y y aooa y ooy ac a oooy epa y pae oco oxopo py. Cay 1327 1332 p. a x pao epecya aapeoya o. op oec y oxopo py o oeao aa oapa. Ha ocay paa e ye aax oc.
Oxopo py y oepea pox cy, cy x yo eeo 1360 p. aa a e oc o y a 20 y cep poo pyy epyxooo aa. o oo co oo o o y oya eoao. Toy ocaa pooo cy pay opaa o py eeo apcopa.
1388 p. y oe paco paa 6 pox , e 8. 1414 p. o ca aca 4 pa a p a ceax eepx cecx, a x poa oyae a cepox oax. Kp oo a pox cy oaac ooo caoa po a x, o, ao, apa opy pox pa. Mpox cy aoya peya apoy ay po.
Mpo cy y opoa ae oec y oo oce (capoc coe) oce (capoc ec).
Ha y pa He, A X c. e aa ocoo ca. Cece ooe c opacoo aoa e caoc. Pap-ooe opoy pa a opoocpooy cyy ( 21 o 40 ).

Buue ocouocm acoo acomuy. u cycoy a ma epau ycmp
Hap XV c. A볿 caoac acoa oapx. e p acoy caoepacy oooa a epoo o po. a, aaa epa ap, eac oa oo peeea a o aacepa opa 30 po (1455 1485 p.). ϳ ac ya ea ae c eoaa a. Ta o, y oa oco po acoy.
epe y ac Top, , ypc a acoy peco, cpaac a ypyae papco pac (ep). ccoy ocoapc A볿 ye pao apoc oap oc. p cepe eeac acocoya y cox aax po eo ee ocoapca. poo pecoo poa y cax c aca op, eco opyaac ypya. ϳyc po ooe cap, opoa pyyaa cya y papc ca ycx, xo xo o ao e (20 y poo pyy).
eoae opco paao c o , ae peoo cay e e caao c oo, o caoy ay. a cya coay Top, a o Cap ca oc pa aopapo. ep A볿 y epx V (e XV c.). oo caoe epx V y 1534 p. opa cocy Baao apaec ao po cypea (epxoeco), poooc cee ao aaco ep, op co ay a epox aa. peya peopa, ceo epxo V, epo aaca, oy c e, epe o opo. poec oopoya ce aca ox ee opaa o py ep. Cey ee a aaa oe opco oopy pecoy ypya糿.

Kopo oc ocepe cox pyax e cyoco, oe cepy epoo pc. A po epxoeco opo, a a ac epxa V, oaa opya ep epa.
Acoa oapx A볿 axaa epec opca. Te, o ac opo opoc aa eoao popoeoc, copa epaoay epay, oao epeca ypya糿, o poaac. opa ya ca opoca aa ee cee pe eoao pye cy ce pec, o acoo poopc y epo epcoo apoae aay. a Top e yo po oo, o aa ca pyyac aoo opo.
opo acoc oapx oeax epa ac aco a eaepe xapaep. e oc y epee caoo-pecaoo opay y apaey a ceoo caopya. B A볿 e yo oco ap쳿 poayeoo popaoo aapay. Ocpe ooe A볿 a o ac cpo ocaoy axcy aay o.
Acoa aa Top aao oy pyyaac a eoo oyoc. Kopoa ooa o aco ycx ee A볿.
epx V cyopo popac , xo cpoya po oo o epaa. o p aoo y poye c eoa co py. Cyx opao opo caa opoca paa, a eaoo o oap Top caa ay Tao pa. Boa caaac 20 oo, aca op-aep, op-cap a cao. Taa paa cpoyaa opoaa c ycx epax cex opa a oooro peae, cpy, poaa, aec, aa.
a ac pa Top apae pa co o ae. ϳc oapxa ao aaco (1534), pae e epox cao epe o oo a. Apxco a co, o aca aa op, epeopc a pocx opocx o. Ccx op opo paa ca. ep, o epya opa y pacax, cepeo opo caa a oo oo, oo c opa aay o.
1482 p. copeo cy apaeca, po oc oo paa a XV c. ϳ oo pc aa pa o, ca a acx cyax y poy op, a oo, oa opco ope.
pooya cya eccepc cy aaoo paa cy aepa.
ϳ Top A볿 caac oco epaoaa ccea ceoo caopya. Baa a cx aeaa po cy, epyaa Taa paa. Mpo cy paa x o, e, oox oce, oox oce, aa a -, opox aa. Hap XV c. po cy ay paa opo a c ep. x eep cec y ca, o o oa yo aea poy ycx ocaox oc paca.
Mpo cy poo oepe pocya -x pax o. Haca x poa a eepx cecx, e ca (oa XV c.) a ax cecx, o a e pox cy o apa (e yac pcx acae) a ea o.
ep, e (oec), oce po cy y ooo co, o aeeyaa oxopoy opocoo py pacax. oec y oya ao capoc ceo oo oce. cax y op cop ceay oepy o, a oa ya oxopo opo ca, ye a.
Ho acpao oe pa ya epoa apa. ocao oco a e paa oo pa poacoro opy: o o aaa pa a poo, a opye pa eoo .

 

Xapamep ocouocm epe paa. Cyou peee
B eoxy eoay copyac oco cy p acoo paa. oo epea y caye pao, aae pao cy aepa ao cy .
Caye pao a cee pao op, ae aax apaey opo (opocx xapx, acax, opoacax, poaax, pox), oa Beo Xap ooce 1215 p.
Hap X c. A볿 yac ya aaoo paa. oy cpa c opocx cy. ϳc peop epxa cyo pa ca poa o ca aeop cpa opoyac o ca pao opaa, o xo epy. yo poeo a , a , oaox aa, e x e oa yo oa cpay. py ope copa o aa.
epy cpoy yaa pay opocx cy po y 1189 p. oo cy A볿 P. e y paa po ao 볿. cepe X c. aae pao ocya o pc . pao y pa po ao a A볿.
aae pao A볿 aao ooo y pcoo paa. Ta, . pao y 1250 p. aya a po o pc ac aa pao. Cy aaoo paa, e axo ooo o peeeax, epac o paa . paoa acoa e p pcoo paa. 1350 p. ooy a pecaoc, o aa a aa pao.
aae pao paoyao co ay , o, o-epe, o a epop c A볿. eoa yc o y acocoya oo op. e aopa cy epyac a aopy, oo ce. o-pye, aae pao e poo x oce aeop x ac poy x cpa.
aae pao e aa a. Boo caoc peya 䳿 cyox a, o a cyepe ooy aooacy. B ocoy aoo paa oaeo oo aaoaoc aaoooc. Baaoc, o p pe 򳺿 o , cy a acocoya ao, oo opcoy e cyy paoy opy. o eccepcx cy ya p po pa y oaoe ce a. aa pay, cy po paa, epyac, acocoy a. o a cyepe aoo ao aa pa aoo paa, o oo x. Oe, y cox ocaoax cy apa pao op, o cac pae.
Macpa, py cp, ae eocao oo peyoa aoo ayc, o xo acx op. p oy opcoya pey, o cy a acocoy e cyy opy paa. Oe, caoe p caa cyo a (peeeo), ooo cx x cy. Bx peee oa e a cyoa ca. oy ay paa co py cy.
Ocoo ac p cce e, o e cye pao ye ee cyo pe. Cy e cop pao, a e pa oo. poo paoo acy peee e a epaoro ae, a XV c. ca ooo.

Cyoe pe, ecee y c cpa, ayao c aoy cx acyx aaox cpa, cy e a paa oo.
oo, o cyoe pe ayo oooo c oax aaox cpa, oo oo yo y aecee y p cyox pooo. Oe, aae pao cyao ccea cyox peee poo peya ax oc, o e epeaac aoo.
Ha oao ca䳿 aae pao ypao cee e e eee pcoo a aooo paa. Pao , aae pao pocaoc ce a, a yoeoy pcoy pay. Boo pao ay po y ooa popoeoc, epaa ypa cyy. Ccey aaoo paa pya c ca. e yo o p oo, o A aoa pee pcoo paa.
Kopoa pyaa cy aocacocoo paa. Cy aaoo paa y cya opo, x aca cp opo, y poa oo o. XV c. cy oᒿa pay cypoo acx cap, yxap, yc y aax, ocx cex eeac.
Heeea ce a py a aaoo paa pc pao oo epoy, o ocyao eoeey ay oapxa, a a epxa V. pa c c. aae pao, cee ace e, o acy epay ccey, yo ocoo po oopo cyoca peyopo cycx oc. oa poo cya ce o o aeop cpa, e a cyooo axcy cyax aaoo paa. Tae caoe yo paee cope cyy aepa, ao cyy .
Pae oapx y ca poa a cpa. A o c x po poca, o pe x oo yo oaee a aepa. Coay poa oy cpay a ca ceaoo yay opoco pa. o apc cy ca caoco poa cap pax oc.
cy aepa acocoya o, eo aaoo paa poecya op. poy cpa e opo yo a poope po oaa, e aax cyax aa e p ex paoocax, axac aoo. oc yo poco a ao oca ooy.
ep cpa, ca aac cy aepa, cocyac opo acoc (pacy), oo a, o oa ocoa epeaaa co ao oco, poy opaac epecax aca ao pex oc a ao aca. aae pao e aao oo cyy. o opa aaoo paa, ocoa, yo epeao ao, caaa oo aco, a ope paa y- paa a oo. cy opo acoc A볿 aya ea oo . o oo aac papc ope, oacp, ye 䳿 a opopa. Hap XV c. ooa ee A볿 a cayc opo acoc.
Kaep, poa oa opo acc oo, ca xo yy p caa ooopy. Cpaa oy, o aepa pa ac paac yxo oco, ope a pce aoe pao. opaep Toac Mop (1478 1535 pp.) y epo cco o a oy ocy. ea aoe pao aaa yy epopoo ae, cpoaoc y ax a. Oe, pac ca cyo axc.
o cep aepco pc opa ooop, yae yco e c. Cy aaoo paa aa oco oaa oye e pa o ya oaa c, a ocoo ce aaex oc, , , y oa oa. Toy copo e o c cyax aaoo paa. Kaep, aa, pa x ce. oo cy acocoya pexpece oya c pco. Kaep aa pe oy oye, y cypoo copo paac opo eo. o oye y pae, aep pa pco oaa po c poa cpy cpay a, aeo oye peao cya. Heoa pe, ecex aepo, apaoc pao ao pe ye.
op cy, eocepeo aea opo, oapx a oo po paa. pa o糿 cya aaoo paa cyo aepa pae coo aeao ocaoy. B opao e y a opa paa. e ap XV c. p, epyac aep ac poa cpa, y pee ey ccey.
e epo yo aaeo oco acoo paoo , po p: oe oca e a ocoy ao ao oepoo oo c쒿, a a y epec, opoc . aca pao-paoo oaoc opa ya ac x o.
eoae pae pao oo poyo pay acaa coy ceopy, oy aa y poc. o paa oxoao eoopy, op ceopy oy ax oy oc. ao e poo o pa acao epa. o e ep opc a c o, ac Kapeocoo Hopeocoo ac poac o opoc cya: ae co, po, a, aooeo a .
XV c. eo c o e ace paa, a, co epy, oac a coy ay. o coo pa yo caoee aoo y 1352 p. ooc a c : paa opo, oca po oo, ay oa oapxa, opoey ao cao oy, oca a ecy eoopac ocax, cpoa oa x coo, poa opoco ea, co aepa ao opooo cy.
eoae pao epeaao, o epaa caac oapxa, oo c쒿 ax. Toy e po opo a oo x poa ocoo epa o. 1416 p. o coo pa yo eceo ao aooeo.
a a o peaac aao opco oapa (apa, oecya). op acye oac ec x . Baa, o epa oe epea coay po, oy o ec oac a o a.
o ao pa epeaao oe oae , ee ocoo, a oa ya opc oy (apa, yco pyo ooa, cyo ocoap).
Me pa e (cop) aea o peoo poy o. copo o epy oao x paoopye. Mcopa y ece, , paa a cyy ee 12 ec .
Kpae pao epeaao cyop oapa, eo x yo aya. ye aao o apac cpao: caa, pa p, oecya, a ac a a . Ta, a e o coo pa o aa caa, a oo eepya. 1401 p. apae ycao cpay caa a o.
o-cee pao
Ace o-cee pao epeyao e o aooo paa. o opo y y epo . pao cayc y oc oee. Ta, x ax cycca a oc ao ooa, x a opcyaac oco cooo. ex a o -aaoc pao a ypa co ao, ae oc a ypa ao c쒿 ca oo. ϳ o ep yo aopoeo poye, ae ex aax (apa, p opy pa) oooc opee poa. oa e aac e o y coe.

Caya yaoc ao ao. Caya ao yo eee pao cyo opo acoc ( XV c.), ae a cao 1540 p. yo oaeo ooa aepao aee e, e opa cay. ³o eeo acoc p aopay, oo ycaya eoa cap co, a p oo cyoc cap po. e caoc eo ao poe eoa.
pao acoc
Xapaep paoo cce A볿 aao pao eoao acoc epxoo acoc opo a e. o aa cac a peay eay acc. eea acc axaac pea ooa, oo a, o oa oepaac acy, a pea acoc epcoa. ee paa aac oo a oco pa oo. Boo, y co epy, yo (opa a yo ece cy ao oo oo cea, a opy ey cyy poe epeya oo ) e (o oae ococ oee ooc cea a opc opa, e aco epepoco y caoe pao -). Hee oo coay e ao cyooy axcy, ae XV c. oo, oa , ca poa y cy aepa.

 

 

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